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Climate change and infectious diseases prevention treatment

Climate change and infectious diseases prevention treatment Climate change has the potential to affect global systems, however, its effects ...

Climate change and infectious diseases prevention treatment


Climate change and infectious diseases prevention treatment
Climate change has the potential to affect global systems, however, its effects on human health have not been well defined. Developing countries with limited resources are expected to face many health consequences due to climate change, including vector and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera and dengue. This document reviews the most common infectious and widespread diseases in India, their interactions with climate change, and how health care providers can discuss health protection strategies with their patients.
Introduction

The spread of infectious diseases involves complex social and human factors. These include overcrowding and morality, type and habitat, water supply, sewerage and waste management systems, land use and irrigation systems, access to and use of vector control systems, access to health care, and general sanitation.

 Climatic factors that contribute to the transmission of infectious diseases include temperature, humidity, and rainfall patterns. Social and human factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, changes in land use and agricultural practices, deforestation, international migration, and the deterioration of public health services have been a major cause of the recent outbreaks of communicable diseases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change noted in its 2007 report that climate change could contribute to increasing the risk areas of infectious diseases such as dengue and could increase the burden of diarrhea, putting many people at risk.

Global climate change is now considered to be closely linked to human activity. The carbon dioxide level, which has always been fixed at 180-220 ppm 420,000 years ago, is now close to 370 ppm and rising. Thanks to climate change, we are now better able to understand long-term climate change. Such insight can allow you to predict where and when infectious diseases will arise.Describes some of the effects of climate change that Indian doctors can expect to see in the coming years. We describe in this paper the links between climate and health, future outcomes, and recommendations for clinical communication with patients.
Climate change and health in India

The effects of climate change on people's lives in India are a broad topic, covering areas ranging from extreme weather events to changes in vector-borne diseases. In South Asia, scientists predict an increase in floods due to the high incidence of rainfall and flash floods (GLOFs) in mountainous regions.

 These styles are already being seen. In 2007, torrential rains killed more than 2,000 people and displaced more than 20 million people in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. In the Himalayan region of South Asia, the frequency of GLOFs increased during the second half of the 20th century, with GLOFs recently occurring in Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bhutan.

Floods form a conducive environment for many of the health effects of disease transmission. For example, if the flood water is contaminated by human or animal contamination, the rate of oral transmission may increase, allowing diarrhea and other bacterial or bacterial infections to develop. Faecal-oral transmission of the disease is a major concern in regions such as South Asia due to limited access to clean water and sanitation.

In developed countries, flood control efforts, sanitation infrastructure, and outbreak monitoring and control operations reduce the risk of flood-related diseases9. In developing countries, the prevalence of diarrhea, cholera, diarrhea, and typhoid is a major concern. For example, after flooding in West Bengal in 1988, cholera was thought to be the cause of the diarrhea that left 276 people dead.

 Numerous studies have linked previous floods in Bangladesh and parts of India to outbreaks of diarrhea and respiratory infections. Floods can also contribute to the spread of rodent-borne infectious diseases. For example, stagnant water collection provides mosquito breeding grounds, which can help in the spread of malaria. Other studies link floods in Bangladesh and parts of India with the outbreak of rotavirus and leptospirosis.

Rising above sea level temperatures are expected to increase the intensity of tropical cyclones and the height of storms. Although hurricanes from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea have declined frequently since 1970, these have intensified, causing extensive damage in India and Bangladesh. The public health consequences of hurricanes include diseases and illnesses associated with the loss of clean water, sanitation, sanitation, loss of housing and property, migration, toxic exposure, and hunger and malnutrition.

Water-borne diseases

Warm weather can cause waterborne diseases to increase, including cholera and diarrheal diseases such as giardiasis, salmonellosis, and cryptosporidiosis. Diarrhea is already a major cause of illness and death in South Asia, especially among children. It is estimated that one quarter of all child deaths in South Asia are due to diarrhea26. As the temperature rises, the survival rate will increase and thus the incidence of diarrhea may continue to increase.

Diarrhea is largely attributed to unsafe drinking water and lack of basic hygiene; Thus, a decrease in the availability of fresh water is likely to increase the incidence of such diseases. Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and unsuitable water use have already created water shortages in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Climate change will increase the shortage of available fresh water as the average annual rainfall decreases in many areas.

Cholera is a well-known diarrheal disease that has plagued mankind since ancient times. Outbreaks of cholera have been reported in India, Bangladesh, and more recently in Latin America and Africa. Molecular techniques show that bacteria are now known to occur naturally in aquatic environments, joining the bacterial population peaks and plankton peacocks in the spring. The discovery of Vibrio cholerae in the natural environment with a dormant state between epidemics, changed the perception that the disease has only human reservoirs. 

The relationship between sea surface temperature rise and the onset of cholera epidemic has been observed, with seasonal rise and fall in sea-level altitude and temperature following the outbreak of sea lera. The increase in the population of cholera bacteria associated with plankton blooms in spring and summer is noted in many Latin American countries and in Bangladesh.

Malaria

Malaria is the most serious and complex health problem. There are 40,000 to 40,000 million cases of malaria and more than 1 million deaths worldwide each year. Many factors have led to the global resurgence of malaria, including the emergence of pesticides and drug resistance, human population growth and movement, changes in land use, and deterioration of public health infrastructure. Changes in temperature, rainfall, humidity and immune levels also affect malaria transmission. All of these factors may interact to affect the density of adult mosquitoes and the growth of Plasmodium parasites within mosquitoes.

Both parasitic parasites and mosquitoes are sensitive to temperature changes. At temperatures close to the parasite's physical tolerance limit, a slight increase in temperature can kill the parasite, reducing the risk of malaria transmission. At lower temperatures, however, a slight increase in temperature can greatly increase the risk of malaria transmission due to the increased number of mosquitoes .

 Other environmental changes may also affect malaria transmission. For example, deforestation can increase local temperatures and changes in habitat types can cause changes in indoor temperatures where vectors spend most of their time at rest. Deforestation, vegetation clearance and irrigation can create open pools selected by malaria vectors and thus increase transmission.

In South Asia, malaria is one of the most relevant examples of the growing incidence of vector-borne disease. Malaria is already one of the most important vector-including diseases in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns have the potential to expand the geographical range of malaria in temperate and arid parts of South Asia. For example, the distribution of malaria in India is expected to expand in latitude and longitude.

 Because the relationship between climate and disease distribution is complex, rising temperatures in some areas may restrict malaria transmission. Decreased transmission intensity in local areas can lead to higher levels of the population's immune system, resulting in an epidemic of up to 300 in subsequent years.

Currently, all the population of India is at risk of malaria transmission, except in areas above 1700 m above sea level. More than 7373 b million individuals in India are exposed to vector-borne malarial parasites, and an estimated 757,000,000 years of disability adjusted life years (DALY) were lost to malaria in 1998.

The multifactorial nature of the cause of malaria does not easily lend itself to a simple model of disease prognosis. To determine the role of climate change in malaria transmission, research efforts will be required to incorporate a disease surveillance system by combining trend analysis of multiple sites for localized accounts. The first operationally useful early warning system for epidemic malaria was implemented in India.

 The system combines human and meteorological factors to provide a leading time of approximately one month of epidemic risk. Rainfall alone accounted for about 45 percent of malaria transmission. By the 2050s, the geographical range of malaria vectors is projected to migrate from Madhya Pradesh to the southwestern and northern states . 

The duration of the broadcast window is likely to be extended to the northern and western states and will be shortened in the southern states. Malaria is likely to continue in Orissa, West Bengal and southern parts of Assam. It can migrate from central India to the south-west coast states (Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka). Northern states can also be elite. The duration of contagion is likely to be extended in North and West India and shortened in South India.

Other vector-reproductive and zoonotic diseases

Climate change could affect other local diseases in South Asia. These include mosquito-borne diseases such as Chikungunya fever and dengue, parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, and tick-borne diseases, which may change or shift in the intensity of changes in their geographical range due to environmental influences.

 Relative vector population. Weather factors can also affect human infestation, spread by bacterial disease and fleas carried by mice. Temperature and rainfall are important determinants of the abundance and distribution of extreme populations. Combined with the influence of temperature and humidity on the survival and development of fleas, any change in climate factors can lead to a change in the incidence of plague. Murean typhus, rickettsial disease, is also transmitted by fleas and thus exhibits similar environmental sensitivities.

Arboviral diseases Chikungunya and dengue can also be affected by the weather, as both are spread by the common vector Aedes aegypti. The first report of Chikungunya in India was made in 1963 in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and the transmission continued till 197334. The virus relapsed in 2005, and has since spread rapidly, with more than a million cases reported - despite a standard surveillance system. Disease. Dengue has also been a significant problem, with more than a dozen dengue outbreaks in India since 196036. Activity, abundance, distribution, and ability to infect viruses are affected by temperature and precipitation.

Summary and implications for programs and health care providers

As a developing and populous country, India could experience many health consequences due to climate change. These effects can include infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, and waterborne diseases. Monitoring the spread of infectious diseases will require early, health and economic benefit programs. The increase in bad weather will also have health consequences. Relocation due to housing loss, famine, and injury are just some of the negative consequences for humans.

Healthcare providers will need to address at an early stage the adverse health effects associated with climate change in India. Doctors should expect an increase in infectious diseases. There may be a high demand for emergency medical services such as emergency care and ambulance care. Emerging vector-borne diseases can start appearing in these emergency care facilities. 

Extended surveillance operations can detect flexible transmission mechanisms so that emergency department staff are aware of emerging threats. Many other fields of health care in India may be affected by climate change, including family practice, internal medicine, pediatric treatment, geriatrics, and psychotherapy.

The Climate and Health Council of the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom has outlined a number of steps that can be taken by healthcare providers, many of which are appropriate for providers in India. This includes informing our professional colleagues and the wider community about the health effects of climate change, and advocating for carbon reduction to promote human health. 

The preparation of the health system, which is also associated with Indian hospitals, has been commended many times. These include conducting research on electricity, tracking energy and water conservation and energy efficiency. A review of the complete emissions from petrol-based energy sources such as diesel generators and hospital transport systems is an important first step. Emergency plans to find alternative sources of electricity during the power outage, especially during the summer months, will make it easier to prepare for these events.

 To reduce waste, Health Care Without Harm has proposed a number of alternatives: recycling and recycling products, collection and re-use of nitrous oxide and anesthetics, waste prevention and waste disposal. Using native vegetation and planting trees on the site can reduce the effect of a tropical island. Plants reduce global temperatures near buildings, reduce building cooling load, energy requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. Such measures improve health by reducing the formation of low fog. Smoking leads to respiratory symptoms and illness. Indigenous plants require less water and attract beneficial insects, thus eliminating the use of pesticides.

The effects of climate change in India will not be the same. Those at a lower socio-economic level are more likely to be affected by the health impacts of climate change, as they have less flexibility4. As the Indian economy continues to grow, the growing middle class presents a unique situation. 

While rising poverty will improve sanitation and living conditions, thus increasing tolerance to infectious diseases, it will also lead to higher consumption patterns that could create new health problems while leading to more carbon emissions.Some of the topics health care providers can discuss with their patients to help maximize benefits. General practitioners and specialists can both play a role in anticipating the health effects of climate change and improving health by discussing effective health care with their patients.

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